SICKLE CELL part 1| Wazobia TV | Na your health

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Published on October 18, 2017 by AfroTelly

Sickle-cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person’s parents.[2] The most common type is known as sickle-cell anaemia (SCA).[2] It results in an abnormality in the oxygen-carrying protein haemoglobin (hemoglobin S) found in red blood cells.[2] This leads to a rigid, sickle-like shape under certain circumstances.[2] Problems in sickle cell disease typically begin around 5 to 6 months of age.[1] A number of health problems may develop, such as attacks of pain (“sickle-cell crisis”), anemia, swelling in the hands and feet, bacterial infections, and stroke.[1] Long term pain may develop as people get older.[2] The average life expectancy in the developed world is 40 to 60 years.[2]

Sickle-cell disease occurs when a person inherits two abnormal copies of the haemoglobin gene, one from each parent.[3] This gene occurs in chromosome 11.[9] Several subtypes exist, depending on the exact mutation in each haemoglobin gene.[2] An attack can be set off by temperature changes, stress, dehydration, and high altitude.[1] A person with a single abnormal copy does not usually have symptoms and is said to have sickle-cell trait.[3] Such people are also referred to as carriers.[5] Diagnosis is by a blood test and some countries test all babies at birth for the disease.[4] Diagnosis is also possible during pregnancy.[4]

The care of people with sickle-cell disease may include infection prevention with vaccination and antibiotics, high fluid intake, folic acid supplementation, and pain medication.[5][6] Other measures may include blood transfusion, and the medication hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea).[6] A small proportion of people can be cured by a transplant of bone marrow cells.[2]

As of 2015 about 4.4 million people have sickle-cell disease while an additional 43 million have sickle-cell trait.[7][10] About 80% of sickle-cell disease cases are believed to occur in sub-Saharan Africa.[11] It also occurs relatively frequently in parts of India, the Arabian peninsula, and among people of African origin living in other parts of the world.[12] In 2015, it resulted in about 114,800 deaths.[8] The condition was first described in the medical literature by the American physician James B. Herrick in 1910.[13][14] In 1949 the genetic transmission was determined by E. A. Beet and J. V. Neel.[14] In 1954 the protective effect against malaria of sickle-cell trait was described.[14]

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